Which retirement savings account is better for you, the Roth IRA or 401K?
The short answer is that it doesn’t really matter because they are both great tax-advantaged tools for helping you save money for retirement.
And it really depends on your situation and your preferences when trying to decide which is truly best for you. Below I’ll try and present the facts about the two types of retirement accounts and let you do the deciding.
Again, the short answer is just to get started with one or the other (or both!), if your goal is retirement savings.
- Contributions are Pre-Tax
- Annual Contribution Limit is $16,500
- No Income Limits
- Withdraw Contributions at 59 ½ years-old
- Mandatory Withdrawals at 70 ½ years-old
- Participation Tied to Employer and Employer’s Choice of Funds
Roth IRA Facts
- Contributions are After-Tax
- Annual Contribution Limit is $5,000
- Contributions Limited Based on Income
- Withdraw Contributions at Any Time Without Penalty
- No Mandatory Withdrawals
- Very Flexible
The Case for the 401K
I love the 401K. It’s the old guy on the retirement investing block. Just a bit younger than deceased grandpa pension. All kidding aside, it’s got some massive advantages. First, most people with corporate jobs have access to contribute to one. And most people get to direct their contributions to the funds of their choice. The biggest advantage of the 401K is the tax deferral. Since the annual contribution limit is $16,500, you get to avoid paying taxes on that much in income every year. If you’re in the 25% tax bracket, that could mean >$4,000 in tax savings. High income earners (>$75,000) should be maxing out each year.
Check to see how your 401K ranks amongst others.
The Case for the Roth IRA
I also love the Roth IRA. It came along in the 90s as a new investment tool used to encourage people to invest in their retirement by promising no taxes in retirement. With a Roth IRA, you invest today’s after tax dollars and never pay tax again on that money or the earnings from that money. If you plan to be a high roller in retirement AND you don’t make a high salary now, then this is the account for you.
The biggest advantage I see in the Roth IRA is it’s flexibility. You can open up a Roth IRA at a number of places (unlike the 401K), you can invest in just about any type of fund or asset, and you can withdraw your contributions whenever you need them without penalty. If you want to actively trade within your Roth IRA, consider one of the best online stock brokers.
Why Not Use Both?
The great thing about comparing these two accounts is that if you can’t decide which one to use, you can legally participate in both. Just make sure you meet the income limitations of the Roth. A common strategy that people use when deciding how to allocate retirement funds is this:
1. Invest in your 401K to get your company match.
2. Invest in a Roth IRA to the max.
3. Come back to the 401K and finish maxing it out.
That’s what I would call overall tax diversification in your retirement savings plan.
So what do you think of these two different retirement savings account? Which do you have and why?